Ladies and gentlemen, now let’s appreciate the great works of ancient Chinese. What we can see now is the first temple in the western hill---Qianxi Temple, which was built in the early Tang Dynasty. The word Qianxi means hidden stream in Chinese. During the construction of the temple, the workers found a hidden stream at the place of the cave, hence the name.
After seeing the Qianxi Temple, the cave in front us are the Bingyang Caves. The caves consist of the three large caves, the North, the Middle and the South Caves. They were all built under the imperial court of the Northern Wei Dynasty. The project was not finished in the Northern Wei Dynasty except the central one because of a palace rebelling. There are 11 big statues in the middle cave. Sakyamuni is of dignified and serene appearance, while his disciple and Bodhisattva are of slender figure and elegant look, which are the typical style of the late Northern Wei Dynasty. The floor is engraved with lotus patterns and on the rooftop is a relieve of flourishing lotus flower. The South Cave was completed in the late Sui Dynasty, and the North Cave in the early Tang Dynasty, each with a style of their own days.
In the West Hill of Longmen, there are several “the most” caves to feast your eyes. Just now, we visited the Ten-thousand Buddha Cave with 15000 Buddhist images, which has the most Buddha images, and the Lotus Cave with 2cm-high Buddha images, which are the tiniest Buddha images.
And now, we’ve come to another “most”, the Fengxian Temple, the symbol or the soul of the world-known great Longmen-grottoes, built in the Tang Dynasty, and it is the largest grotto in Longmen Temple with a width of 36 metres (about 118 feet) and a length of 41 metres (about 136 feet). There are nine major figures of various facial appearances and temperaments in the temple that were built in accordance with the Buddhist rite and their relationships by the artists. The most impressive figure is the statue of Vairocana Buddha sitting cross-legged on the eight-square lotus throne. It is 17.14 metres (about 56.23 feet) in total height with the head four metres (about 13 feet) in height and the ears 1.9 metres (about 6.2 feet) in length. Vairocana means illuminating all things in the sutra. The Buddha has a well-filled figure, a sacred and kindly expression and an elegant smile. At the sides of Vairocana there are two statues of Vairocana Buddha's disciples, Kasyapa and Ananda, (Heavenly King and Great Men of Strength) wearing prudent and devout expressions. The various appearances and delicate designs are the representations of Empire Tang's powerful material and spiritual strength as well as the high crystallization of people's wisdoms.
Ladies and gentlemen, here is the “Prescription Cave”, known as Yaofang Dong in Chinese, because 140 prescriptions were engraved at the doorway or inside the cave. It was started in the Northern Qi Dynasty and completed in the early Tang Dynasty with duration of 200 years. The prescriptions preserved in the cave boast the earliest of all the prescription carvings of ancient times.
Then we come to the Guyang Cave. It is the earliest cave in Longmen Grottoes. It has a history of over 1500 years, and was developed on the base of a natural cave.
There are three tiers of niches on the northern and southern wall of the cave, in which are hundreds of statues, and most of the statues are engraved with the names of the artists, the dates and the reasons for carving them. One thing we have to point out is that nineteen of the most famous Twenty Calligraphies are found in Guyang Cave. Twenty Calligraphies represent the steles of the Wei's style, which are the essentials of stele calligraphies in Longmen Grottoes.
Ok, Dear friends, the Longmen Grottoes trip is coming to the end. I want to thank all of you from the bottom of my heart. It is my hope that you’ve enjoyed the trip as much as I have. Thank you!
Longmen Grottoes tourguide word:
Hello, Confucius said, has the friend to come from the distantplace, delight. Today, I am precisely have this kind of feelings toreceive fellow friends the arrival.
Luoyang, is the historical famous city which the Chinese and foreignis well-known. She has glorious historical, bright cultural and themultitudinous cultural relic historical site. In order to cause fellowguests at Luoyang period can has the further understanding to thisancient city historical culture and the historical site, is riding ina carriage the scenic spot visit on the way, I Luoyang's history andthe Longmen Grottoes approximate situation, will make the simpleintroduction to everybody. Luoyang is located west Henan Province, theYellow River middle reaches Nanan. Because of is situated at northshore the Luohe river to acquire fame, Italy is positive for the Luoriver water.
Luoyang in the history once was the city which the multitudinousdynasty founds a capital, is known to be "nine faces the ancientcapital". In this more than 1,000 years historical perpetual flow,Luoyang once the long time took Chinese the politics, cultural, theeconomical center. Today, we visit the world famous Longmen Grottoesthen are one of multitudinous cultural relic historical sites.
The Longmen Grottoes, in the Luoyang Nanjiao's Dragon Gate mountainpass place, are apart from the urban district 12.5 kilometers, too and19 years opens cutting from Northern Wei Dynasty, up to now some morethan 1,500 years history, it with the Dunhuang Mogao Caves, the Datongcloud hillock rock cave, together has composed our country famousthree big rock caves art treasure house.
Dragon Gate, in the Spring and Autumn Period Warring States timecalled "Iraq Xiangshan (Dongshan) (Xishan) the thing confrontswith Longmen Mountain, the Iraqi water from the average, has formed agrand gate Latter because is in the Sui and Tang dynasties empiresouth, also calls Dragon Gate.
So-called "rock cave", is the hole which opens cutting on the cliffcliff is straight, perhaps natural forms the pit hole, with hides orstores food and the thing. As early as in primitive society, thepeople have used the natural pit hole description zoomorphism and thelife scene, however by the phenomenon appears and the placewhich as the buddhist, the clergy worships buddha and leads a piouslife, actually is starts Buddhism after ancient India to appear.
As a result of wooded mountain lonesome and quiet, mystical, rock cavewarm in winter and cool in summer, the rock cave uses the templeconvenience according to Shan Diaozao which the bricks and stonesbuilds to be more durable than, therefore appeared the collectionbuilding, the drawing, the vulture in ancient India has chiselled artto accomplish This kind of art, does missionarywork the activity along with the clergy to spread to our country theborder area and the inland, with our country national characteristicsand the traditional each kind of artistic technique style fusionconnection, becomes our country one kind of unique carving, thecolored drawing on pottery craft. We must look today the LongmenGrottoes are one of in our country multitudinous temple grouptreasures.
The Longmen Grottoes group carving, the advantage which said besidesfront, but also has the noticeable natural condition. The Iraqi waterboth banks cliff all belonged to the Paleozoic Era cambrian period andthe Ordovician discipline lime rock layer. Its lithical hard, thestructure is
close, not suitably makes decent and the big area suits very much to the artistic statue, compares with other granulatedsubstance rocks, has is suitable for preserved the advantage.
After Luoyang Longmen Grottoes opening cutting is continues Gansu theDunhuang rock cave, the Shanxi Datong's cloud hillock rock cave anlarge-scale group which opens cutting by the imperialfamily, constructs to Northern Wei Dynasty too with the year,successively has been through repeatedly the Eastern Wei Dynasty,Western Wei Dynasty, the Northern Qi Dynasty, the Northern ZhouDynasty, Sui and Tang dynasties, five generations delays until theQing Dynasty. Around more than 400 years. Large-scale, effectivenessbuilds calculates roughly about for 150 years, separately appears inNorthern Wei Dynasty (occupies for more than 40 years) (toapproximately compose about for 110 years) with Sui and Tang dynastiesthe time. The Longmen Grottoes niche for a statue ofBuddha, the statue spread all over along Iraqi water both banks in theDragon Gate thing two mountains on, the north and south longamount to 1 kilometer. Fellow friends, we approximately use 1.5 - 2 hours time at the LongmenGrottoes visit, in this, our each minute may see to 1,000 大大小小images of Buddha. According to 1962 Dragon Gate preservation ofcultural relics statistics, two mountains extant holes niche more than2,100. Size statue 100,000, pagoda 40, statue prefatory remarksinscribed text approximately more than 2,870 blocks. Statue byNorthern Wei Dynasty (Eastern Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty), Sui,Tang primarily. Northern Wei Dynasty approximately composes about 30%,Sui and Tang dynasties account for about 60%. The Longmen Grottoesbiggest statue for presents first temple Lu Shenei the Buddha. TheLongmen Grottoes group, the majority of centralisms in Iraqi waterWest bank on, including 7 large-scale caverns. Because of theDragon Gate Dongshan's rock layer compared to Xishan's thin, theinconvenient vulture chisels the large-scale statue. In the LongmenGrottoes, the Northern Wei Dynasty time cavern has representatively isin the ancient positive hole, Binyang the hole, the lotus flower holeand so on. The Sui 代作 representative is south Binyang the hole.The Tang Dynasty has the representative cavern to include: Dives norththe brook temple, Binyang the hole, Wan Fudong, presents first thetemple and so on.
The Longmen Grottoes statue, not only is all previous dynastiesworking people and the artist infinite wisdom and the blood and sweatcrystallization, also is rare and beautiful flowers which externalcultural and our country culture union becomes. These carving is undertaking for god Buddha and the king statue mission, actuallyboldly broke through the religion and the Confucianism "the ritual"the fetter. Melted the massive real life in the carving process,living has displayed each kind of character statue touching scene. Ifjoyful, gentle, dignified, acts with constraint, the pain, down totook to high immeasurable control Buddha dignified solemn andrespectful, coerces waits on the person and reverently provides forthe person to be tranquil, does not have one is not the artists to thereality "the person" the profound observation, unifies the expressionmeans using the realism and the romanticism, performs highly tosummarize the centralized result. Really it may be said is true tolife which the Buddha and the person displays in carving art general,lifelike. But forms in one's mind the layout integrity, imposingmanner concentrating on, overall solid powerful, disposition changediverse, facial expression vivid lifelike, the clothes grain linesmooth is exquisite and so on, was in 1100 in the artistic practicetradition foundation, the massive models external culture, the resultwhich in the technique, the style the careful creation, the massiveinnovations, the breakthrough tradition, sedulously managed. The richtalent ancient times artisan and the carving design artist, facing thebare sheer precipice, was utilizing simple chiselling, carved the sopalatial magnificent careful community image of Buddha,
this inat that time the productive forces and under the production toolextremely backward condition, truly made one sigh for
The Longmen Grottoes look like richly colorful, the comprehensive bigmuseum, for research and so on our country history, religion, culture,art, medicine, has provided the extremely precious material.
Good, fellow friends, we arrived the Longmen Grottoes, now askseverybody to alight, walks with me, visits the rock cave. In in thevisit rock cave process, I give fellow friends to explain several maincaverns with emphasis which the Longmen Grottoes plants.